Posted by: Admin | 24/07/2010

Layout Proposal FYP

I have uploaded the layout for FYP forwarded to me from Wan Aizuddin which was taken from Don Luqman. Look at download page, at FYP section

Posted by: Admin | 24/03/2010

Highlight Final Haematology Questions

This is what I remebered from the questions. May you have additional input, please leave it in the comment. Hopefully, we can get this knowledge and seal it in our mind, insyaAllah.


Angiogenesis occurs normally in repair of damaged tissues

Benign tumor is well differentiated.

Malignant tumor metastasize.



Haemoglobin has reduced O2 binding at reduced pH (acid)

Carcinogenesis is a multi step process of tumor development
1. process of accumulation of mutations (genetic changes)
2. process of genetic & cellular changes leading to tumor development
3. dependent on the cooperation between multiple genetic changes within a single cell.


Neoplasia is a progressive purposeless pathologic proliferation of cells characterized by LOSS OF CONTROL over cell division.

Methaemoglobinaemia is a clinical state in which circulating haemoglobin is present with iron in the oxidized state.


1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning

Affinity of globin bound heme for CO is 10^4 times more than for O2.

Bound CO allosterically activates hemoglobin (shifts O2 saturation curve to the left).

Hemoglobin becomes trapped in the R-state (relax state).

Any O2 already bound cannot be released so its transport to tissues becomes seriously compromised.

Prolonged exposure would be virtually irreversible (t½ = 4-5 hours) and leads to highly toxic levels of carboxyhemoglobin.

Hyperbaric O2 therapy (administration of 100 % O2) is used to treat CO poisoning.

This results in arterial and tissue pO2 of 2000 and 4000 mmHg, respectively, displacing the bound CO, and resulting in a reduction in the t½ to less than 20 minutes.

Posted by: Admin | 16/12/2009

Notes Haematology

Notes haematology dah update. Harap maklum. Lihat pada page downloads

Posted by: Admin | 01/11/2009

To Take Something, Give Something

Some says, don’t expect too much when you give too little and don’t expect anything if you give nothing. Yet, we tend too expect a lot but what do we give? a simple question which could lead to the realization of our behaviour. That is the thing that I would like to share, “to take something, give something”.

This phrase might not be true in all conditions. But it does in most conditions. to take something from a shop, you have to give money. That is the simplest and most practical example. Don’t expect others to give their love to you when you never give your love to them. You study very little and yet you expect to be success with full mark…does it make sense? you answer it by yourself.

From my view, we have to ask ourselves about what we have contribute to others rather than counting on what contributions have others gave to us. But then, when everybody is thinking to contribute something, everyone will have benefits from the contribution. isn’t that awesome? wow! how nice if we could have a contributive community like that.

So, giving something is not losing it, but it rather a way to get something better. If not now, maybe later in hereafter. God knows everything. So why worry?

Make sure what you give to others is not harmful or else you will get something more harmful. if you don’t believe, try it! don’t blame others.

In Islam, giving something we like most to others is even better. be sincere and don’t always wait for rewards. the rewards from Allah are the best. So whyworry?

let us think positively and act accordingly!!!

be happy! make others happy too!!

I try to think, how about you?

Posted by: Admin | 20/08/2009

Dibelenggu Pengalaman

Pengalaman. Guru yang sangat berkesan. Boleh jadi satu memori hitam yang cukup menyakitkan. Apa yang sedang kita alami sekarang, sebentar lagi akan menjadi pengalaman. Setiap hari kita menimba pengalaman baru, meneroka alam kehidupan yang penuh dengan perkara-perkara yang harus dialami, tiada kecuali. Sekadar pengalaman tidak cukup membuatkan kita menjadi lebih baik jika tidak ada yang kita pelajari daripadanya. Bahkan mungkin, pengalaman dapat membawa kita ke dalam kehidupan yang penuh kerisauan, ketakutan, kebimbangan dan ketidakpastian. Kita buntu, tidak berani melangkah kerana pengalaman silam cukup memeritkan. Apabila itu yang kita alami dan kita tidak bisa keluar daripada pola pemikiran tersebut, sedarilah bahawa kita sedang DIBELENGGU PENGALAMAN! Read More…

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