Posted by: Admin | 24/03/2010

Highlight Final Haematology Questions

This is what I remebered from the questions. May you have additional input, please leave it in the comment. Hopefully, we can get this knowledge and seal it in our mind, insyaAllah.


Angiogenesis occurs normally in repair of damaged tissues

Benign tumor is well differentiated.

Malignant tumor metastasize.



Haemoglobin has reduced O2 binding at reduced pH (acid)

Carcinogenesis is a multi step process of tumor development
1. process of accumulation of mutations (genetic changes)
2. process of genetic & cellular changes leading to tumor development
3. dependent on the cooperation between multiple genetic changes within a single cell.


Neoplasia is a progressive purposeless pathologic proliferation of cells characterized by LOSS OF CONTROL over cell division.

Methaemoglobinaemia is a clinical state in which circulating haemoglobin is present with iron in the oxidized state.


1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning

Affinity of globin bound heme for CO is 10^4 times more than for O2.

Bound CO allosterically activates hemoglobin (shifts O2 saturation curve to the left).

Hemoglobin becomes trapped in the R-state (relax state).

Any O2 already bound cannot be released so its transport to tissues becomes seriously compromised.

Prolonged exposure would be virtually irreversible (t½ = 4-5 hours) and leads to highly toxic levels of carboxyhemoglobin.

Hyperbaric O2 therapy (administration of 100 % O2) is used to treat CO poisoning.

This results in arterial and tissue pO2 of 2000 and 4000 mmHg, respectively, displacing the bound CO, and resulting in a reduction in the t½ to less than 20 minutes.



  1. salam..

    erm..nak tanya.. soalan angiogenesis tu bukan ke jawapannya yang “form before menstruation” tu?

  2. Angiogenesis tu berlaku untuk supply nutrient kepada tumor cell. Hmm,kan?

  3. klu ikut notes n kalau tak silap, ada 3 sebab angiogenesis berlaku:
    1) formation at the lining of uterus before menstruation
    2) repair of damaged tissues
    3) formation of placenta

    angiogenesis can occur normally for those reasons. for cancer reason, that’s abnormal.

    huhu..tetibe keliru dengan soalan dr. Tariq. dr. nak ape ek sebenarnye? huhu

  4. salam zul
    aku rasa soalan dia pathological aspect of angiogenesis. jadi, tumor development lah.

    Nak add : Mother-fetus incompatibilty results in Hemolytic Disease of Newborn or HDN which is also called as……………….. ape ye jwpn dia? penah tak dngar pasal erytroblastosis fetalis? boleh tak trima jwpn tu.ak igt jwpn tu masa immuno dr. imad. sape2 igt? dahla jwpn tade dlm notes. huhu.


  5. kan doc tanye pathological occurance.jd, all the normal condition were checked out.

  6. ye la tu kot ati…EF

  7. SALAM..try to contribute

    -people with blood group type O is a universal donor
    -anaemia occur simultaneously after acute blood loss
    -fibrinogen is simultaneously…(xingt la plak)

    How gene therapy enhance effects of chemotherapy
    (p/s-jwpn junior leh cri dlm note dr.tariq ye)

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